介绍 (Introduction)

During the last few years, Internet of Things (IoT) devices have started becoming a more and more important component in our daily lives. Some common applications for IoT devices are:

在过去的几年中,物联网(IoT)设备已开始成为我们日常生活中越来越重要的组成部分。 物联网设备的一些常见应用是:

  • Smart Home (eg. smart lamps)


  • Wearables (eg. smart-watches)


  • Autonomous vehicles


  • Smart cities


  • Smart Retail


According to Wikipedia, IoT devices are defined as:


“The Internet of things (IoT) is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of hardware (such as sensors), these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled ”                                                                                                        –   Wikipedia [1]

物联网 (IOT)是因特网连接到物理设备和日常物品。随着电子,因特网连接,和其它形式的硬件(例如,传感器)的嵌入式的延伸,这些设备可以通过因特网与其他人通信和交互,并且可以对其进行远程监视和控制” – Wikipedia [1]

One of the most interesting characteristics of IoT devices is that they are able to produce large amounts of data. This can be particularly used in applications such as Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.

物联网设备最有趣的特征之一是它们能够产生大量数据。 这可以特别用于诸如人工智能和机器学习之类的应用中。

Most of IoT devices can produce in fact a great variety of Time Series data which are of huge interest in Artificial Intelligence.


According to a study carried out by Global Data, the IoT market is projected to reach $318bn new worth by 2023 (in constantly rise compared to the previous years).

根据Global Data进行的一项研究,到2023年,物联网市场预计将达到3180亿美元的新价值(与往年相比不断增长)。

These projections are confirmed by the increased interest of companies such as Google and Microsoft to invest in IoT cloud platforms.


物联网设备如何工作? (How do IoT devices work?)

An IoT system is compromised of four main components:


  1. Sensors: enables the devices to collect data from the environment surrounding the device (eg. velocity, GPS coordinates, temperature, etc…).


  2. Connectivity: successively the data collected is sent to the cloud (through either WiFi or Bluetooth connection).


  3. Data Processing: once the data is received by the cloud infrastructure, it can then be processed (eg. check if the data received adhere to the requirements and if its not alert the user).


  4. User Interface: Once the data is processed, the results are then given to the and user.


As a simple workflow example, let’s consider a security system in a house.


Our IoT device will check if there are any intruders in our house using a Computer Vision system (Sensors). The video recordings of the house are then sent to the cloud to see if there are any intruders or not (Connectivity). Successively, the data is processed in the cloud (Data Processing) and if some intruders are detected we get alerted (User Interface).

我们的物联网设备将使用计算机视觉系统( 传感器 )检查我们家中是否有入侵者。 然后将房屋的视频记录发送到云中,以查看是否有入侵者( Connectivity )。 随后,数据在云中进行处理 ( 数据处理 ),如果检测到某些入侵者,我们将收到警报( 用户界面 )。

An IoT system could be able to alert us in many different ways (eg. phone call/message or App notification) and in some cases we could be able to control remotely the system itself (eg. lock the house doors).


物联网云平台 (Internet of Things cloud platforms)

I will now introduce you to some of the most interesting IoT cloud platforms which can be used for analysing and controlling IoT devices.


Google Cloud物联网 (Google Cloud Internet of Things)

Google Cloud is currently one of the main Cloud solutions provider on the market. Some of the packages offered by Google Cloud for IoT implementations are:

Google Cloud当前是市场上主要的Cloud解决方案提供商之一。 Google Cloud提供的用于IoT实施的一些软件包包括:

  • Cloud IoT Core: is used to set up the device(s) and establish a secure connection between them.

    Cloud IoT Core:用于设置设备并在它们之间建立安全连接。

  • Cloud Machine Learning Engine: it allows users to create Machine Learning models from the data gathered by the IoT devices in order to increase and monitor performances.


  • Cloud Pub/Sub: provides real time analytics of the IoT devices.

    Cloud Pub / Sub:提供IoT设备的实时分析。

Azure物联网 (Azure Internet of Things)

Microsoft Azure is another really important cloud services provider. Azure is able to deliver both pre-customized and fully customizable solutions. In this way, Azure is able to provide solutions for both beginners and experts in IoT. Microsoft Azure enables to easily scale IoT systems to include devices from different manufacturers and also provides analytics and Machine Learning services support.

Microsoft Azure是另一个非常重要的云服务提供商。 Azure能够提供预定制和完全可定制的解决方案。 通过这种方式,Azure能够为物联网的初学者和专家提供解决方案。 Microsoft Azure可以轻松扩展IoT系统,以包括来自不同制造商的设备,还提供分析和机器学习服务支持。

亚马逊网络服务(AWS) (Amazon Web Services (AWS))

AWS is one of the most popular solution for cloud based services. AWS can enable to perform IoT projects from end to end and making use of the four following packages:

AWS是最流行的基于云的服务解决方案之一。 AWS可以使用以下四个软件包从头到尾执行物联网项目:

  • AWS IoT Core: is the basic package which can be used to set up IoT devices. Using IoT Core we can integrate different devices to communicate each other over a secured connection making possible to exchange data through cloud storage.

    AWS IoT Core:是可用于设置IoT设备的基本软件包。 使用IoT核心版,我们可以集成不同的设备,以通过安全连接相互通信,从而可以通过云存储交换数据。

  • AWS IoT Analytics: is used to process and analyse all the data produced by IoT devices. Once all the data is stored using a semi-structured format (eg. JSON, CSV) it can be then used for Machine Learning purposes (eg. monitor and optimise the interaction between IoT devices).

    AWS IoT Analytics:用于处理和分析IoT设备生成的所有数据。 一旦使用半结构化格式(例如JSON,CSV)存储了所有数据,就可以将其用于机器学习目的(例如,监视和优化IoT设备之间的交互)。

  • AWS IoT Device Defender: is used to construct and personalise the security mechanisms of IoT devices (such as choosing device authentication and data encryption).

    AWS IoT Device Defender:用于构建和个性化IoT设备的安全性机制(例如选择设备身份验证和数据加密)。

  • AWS IoT Device Management: enables to easily integrate new IoT devices to an environment and monitor/update their functionalities.

    AWS IoT设备管理:可以轻松地将新的IoT设备集成到环境中并监视/更新其功能。

结论 (Conclusion)

Internet of Things devices are definitely going to play a really important role in future technology advancements. Although there are still the same issues that have to be addressed. In fact, one of the main concerns about IoT devices can be cyber-security.

物联网设备无疑将在未来的技术进步中扮演非常重要的角色。 尽管仍然有相同的问题需要解决。 实际上,关于物联网设备的主要关注之一可能是网络安全。

Because most IoT devices make use of a cloud centre to store their data and to collect useful information from the internet, that makes them vulnerable from Hackers attacks (creating a single point of failure).


In order to resolve this problem, could be either possible to increase the encryption standards (slowing down the transfer of data) or makes use of Artificial Intelligence security powered techniques such as Differential Privacy and Federated Learning.

为了解决此问题,有可能提高加密标准(降低数据传输速度),或者利用人工智能安全技术驱动的技术,例如差异隐私和联合学习 。

In case a Hacker would be able to access control of an IoT device (or an entire group) there would be two main risks associated with it:


  • The Hacker would be able to access and steal sensitive data of the IoT device users.


  • The Hacker could be able to take remote control of the device itself.


In addition to the cloud services provided before, also the following ones can be considered a valid alternative: SAP, Oracle Internet of Things, Cisco IoT Cloud Connect, IBM Watson Internet of Things, etc…

除了之前提供的云服务之外,以下服务也可以被视为有效的替代选择: SAP , Oracle物联网 , Cisco IoT Cloud Connect , IBM Watson物联网等等。

联络人 (Contacts)

If you want to keep updated with my latest articles and projects follow me and subscribe to my mailing list. These are some of my contacts details:

如果您想随时了解我的最新文章和项目,请关注我并订阅我的邮件列表 。 这些是我的一些联系方式:

  • Linkedin


  • Personal Blog


  • Personal Website


  • Medium Profile


  • GitHub


  • Kaggle


参考书目 (Bibliography)

[1] Wikipedia, Internet of Things. Accessed at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things

[1]维基百科,物联网。 访问网址 : https : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things

[2] Global IoT market to reach $318 billion by 2023, says GlobalData. Michelle Froese, Windpower Engineering & Development. Accessed at: https://www.windpowerengineering.com/business-news-projects/global-iot-market-to-reach-318-billion-by-2023-says-globaldata/

[2] GlobalData表示,到2023年,全球物联网市场将达到3180亿美元。 Michelle Froese,风电工程与开发。 访问网址 : https : //www.windpowerengineering.com/business-news-projects/global-iot-market-to-reach-318-billion-by-2023-says-globaldata/

[3] Anni Junnila, HOW IOT WORKS – SUMMARY – TRACKINNO BLOG. Accessed at: https://trackinno.com/2018/08/09/how-iot-works-part-4-user-interface/how-iot-works-summary-001/

[3] Anni Junnila,物联网的工作原理–总结– TRACKINNO博客。 访问网址 : https : //trackinno.com/2018/08/09/how-iot-works-part-4-user-interface/how-iot-works-summary-001/

[4] Overview of the best IOT platforms. Tips for selecting the right cloud solution in 2019. Anna Davydova, Edsson. Accessed at: https://www.edsson.com/en/blog/article?id=iot-platforms

[4]最佳物联网平台概述。 在2019年选择正确的云解决方案的提示。埃德森,安娜·戴维多娃(Anna Davydova)。 访问网址 : https : //www.edsson.com/en/blog/article? id = iot-platforms

翻译自: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/introduction-to-iot-internet-of-things/